Although the Tower wasn’t built as a prison, hundreds of people were incarcerated here
Update 27 November: In line with government guidance, the Tower of London will reopen on 3 December.
The Tower of London was built as a secure fortress and a symbol of royal power. Behind the castle's walls were storehouses for weapons and the Royal Mint produced the nation's coins. It was also a royal palace with luxuriously furnished apartments and a menagerie of royal beasts. But the Tower was also used to contain people who posed a serious threat to national security.
Despite its fearsome reputation the story of imprisonment at the Tower is not just one of traitors and gruesome executions. It is also a tale of luxury, banquets and daring escapes. Many prisoners did not end their lives there but were released after paying a ransom or when they no longer posed a threat to security. Like the story of the Tower itself, its role as a prison is a varied one.
Over the centuries, the Tower was a potent symbol of state authority and an object of fear.
The first prisoner of the Tower, Ranulf Flambard, Bishop of Durham was also the Tower's first escapee. In 1101 he climbed through one of the White Tower's windows using a rope smuggled to him in a gallon of wine.
Over 800 years later, on 15 August 1941, Josef Jakobs was the last person to be executed by firing squad at the Tower, having been found guilty of spying for Germany during the Second World War.
In between, the Tower has held in custody Scottish Kings and French Dukes, young princes and princesses and lords, ladies and archbishops, alongside common thieves, religious conspirators and even a few politicians.
Prisoners at the Tower of London had varying experiences, from the luxurious to the lethal. Wealthy, influential inmates could be held in relative comfort, deprived only of their liberty.
Some captive kings, such as Scottish king John Balliol, brought in a host of servants. Others were allowed out on hunting or shopping trips! But those suspected or found guilty of treason, which including counterfeiting coins as well as plotting against the monarch, suffered far more.
By the Tudor period, the Tower had secured a reputation as the foremost state prison in the country and the Tower itself sought to reinforce its image as an unbreakable prison.
John Balliol, King of Scotland (1292-6), by Jacob Jacobsz de Wet II ©Royal Collection Trust
The young Princess Elizabeth was one of the most famous inmates at the Tower. She was imprisoned by her half-sister Mary I, who in the early days of her reign feared that Elizabeth was plotting against her.
Elizabeth arrived at the Tower on 17 March 1554. Legend has it that she entered through Traitors’ Gate, but it is known she walked over a drawbridge, where some of the more sympathetic guards knelt before her.
Held in her mother’s former apartments, Elizabeth was comfortable, but under severe psychological strain. Eventually lack of evidence meant Elizabeth was released into house arrest on 19 May, the anniversary of her mother Anne Boleyn's execution. In January 1559 she returned under happier circumstances - to prepare for her coronation procession.
Image: Elizabeth I when a Princess, c1546. Attributed to William Scrots (active 1537-53), Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2017
Other prisoners of noble birth fared less well, however. Among the seven prisoners executed on Tower Green were three queens of England: Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII; Catherine Howard, Henry’s fifth wife and Lady Jane Grey.
The others beheaded on the orders of the monarch, during the bloody century of Tudor rule were Jane Boleyn, Viscountess Rochester (sister-in-law to Anne), Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.
In 1483 William Lord Hastings was beheaded, probably on the orders of Richard of Gloucester, later Richard III. In 1743, Black Watch mutiny leaders Farquhar Shaw and cousins Samuel and Malcolm Macpherson were shot at dawn on the Green in front of their regiment.
Image: The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, © National Gallery London 2017
Guy Fawkes was brought to the Tower to be interrogated in November 1605 after guards found him hiding in the cellars beneath Parliament, surrounded by barrels of gunpowder. Fawkes was part of a group of conspiritors who intended to assasinate James I during the State Opening of Parliament. He was imprisoned and tortured in the Queen’s House at the Tower of London.
Fawkes and the other plotters suffered a grisly traitor’s death: they were hanged, drawn and quartered, with their body parts then displayed throughout London as a warning to others.
Image by artist Sue Kerr, Courtesy of St Peter's Foundation, reproduced by kind permission
The Duke’s death in the 1470s was perhaps one of the most bizarre at the Tower – if legend is to be believed. Official records state that he was put to death privately at the Tower for high treason against this brother Edward IV. But other contemporary sources allege he was drowned head first in a barrel of his favourite Malmsey wine.
In 1483, 12-year-old Edward V and his younger brother Richard were sent to the Tower ‘for safety’ by their uncle, the Duke of Gloucester. They vanished, apparently without trace and the Duke claimed the throne as Richard III. In 1674 two small skeletons were discovered by workmen at the Tower. Assumed to be those of the missing Princes, Charles II had them reburied in Westminster. Then in 1933, a re-examination proved they were of two boys aged about 10 and 12 – the same ages as the Princes when they disappeared. Was Richard III, often thought to be the most likely culprit, really responsible? The debate goes on.
The Princes in the Tower (oil on canvas), Northcote, James (1746-1831) / Private Collection / Photo © Christie's Images / Bridgeman Images
Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII’s second wife, arrived at the Tower of London in May 1536, accused of adultery and incest. She asked, ‘Shall I go into a dungeon?’ ‘No madam’, came the reply, ‘you shall go into the lodging you lay in at your coronation’. Only three years before, Anne had enjoyed apartments lavishly refurbished by her then adoring husband and king. Anne was found guilty and sentenced to death. As a small mercy, Henry granted her a skilled French swordsman, rather than an axeman. Anne was executed on 19 May with a single blow, and was buried in the Chapel Royal of St Peter ad Vincula at the Tower.
Anne Boleyn by Unknown English Artist, late 16th century. Primary collection of National Portrait Gallery, NPG 668
Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed queen in July 1553. She was an innocent pawn in a failed military coup by her father- in-law, the Duke of Northumberland. Instead, rightful heir Mary I was crowned, while would-be queen Jane and her young husband Lord Guildford were condemned as traitors and sent to the Tower. They were initially granted a reprieve, but further rebellion made Jane’s existence more of a threat. Mary could not afford to let her live. On 12 February 1554 Jane’s husband was publicly executed on Tower Hill. Jane, as one of the privileged few, was beheaded within the Tower walls. She was 17 years old.
The Last Moments of Lady Jane Grey by Hendrik Jacobus Scholten
Physical torture was used at the Tower of London, but only a small number of cases were recorded. It was used mainly during the 16th and 17th centuries.
It was predominantly used to elicit information rather than a punishment, but the pain was real.
Sometimes, even just the threat of the agony to come was enough to break a prisoner’s resolve.
Although prisoners in the Tower could be kept in solitary confinement and deprived of food or sleep, actual physical torture was used as a deliberate programme of interrogation.
This was the principle instrument of torture at the Tower. It was a device upon which victims were laid and then pulled slowly by ropes attached to hands and feet. Repeated racking increased the agony.
The only woman reputedly tortured at the Tower during the 16th century was Anne Askew. Twenty-five-year-old Anne was accused of being a Protestant heretic. When Anne refused to name others who shared her faith, she was racked repeatedly. She was carried, as she was unable to walk after torture, to be burnt at the stake.
Of all the roles that the Tower of London has played, torture has attracted the most myth and legend. A potent mixture of fiction and fact has created a fearsome reputation. Torture was used, but for a relatively short period - the 16th and 17th centuries - and especially during the Tudor period, a time of great political turmoil.
Eventually the Tower became used principally as a secure store for documents, armaments and jewels, instead of prisoners. However, it still remained best known as a dark place of execution and torture. This is largely because of the Tower’s growing popularity as a tourist attraction in the 19th century. But this popular image is only part of the story.
Victorian crowds, entranced by the gothic tales and exaggerated accounts of torture and suffering, flocked to the fortress to enjoy the chill of the ‘dungeons’.